"ΑΜΕΣΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ" ΞΕΝΟΓΛΩΣΣΗ ΒΙΒΛΙΟΓΡΑΦΙΑ. ΜΕΡΟΣ 2ο


"ΑΜΕΣΗ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑ" ΞΕΝΟΓΛΩΣΣΗ ΒΙΒΛΙΟΓΡΑΦΙΑ. ΜΕΡΟΣ 2ο

Cronin Thomas (1999) Direct Democracy: The Politics of Initiative, Referendum, and Recall. iUniverse

A decade ago, as we celebrated the bicentennial of the U.S. Constitutions ratification, we were mindful that the founding fathers were fearful of direct democracy; virtuous representatives were to be at the center of the new political experiment. Ballot democracy, populist democracy, democracy by initiative, referendum, and recall however one labels it is only one hundred years old in the United States and has been in and out of fashion during that time. At the writing of this book there was a resurgence of interest in new kinds of forces trying to overturn legislative and executive fiat by direct ballot. In this book Thomas Cronin suggests why this is so, how it is working, and what should be done. Cronin examines the use of the initiative and referendum offered in twenty-six states over the years including some very difficult issues such as tax caps on spending, the death penalty, pornography, prayer in schools, abortion and homosexual rights and he makes sense out of the sponsors motives and the voters reactions. Through the analysis of hundreds of reports, studies, hearings, polls, and interviews that cover the country from Maine to California, he provides evidence to assess the state of participatory democracy what happens when people decide to take charge after they perceive that their elected officials have failed to understand them.

Bowler Shaun, Donovan Todd Andrew  (1998) Demanding Choices: Opinion, Voting, and Direct Democracy.University of Michigan Press

Referenda on important public policy questions have come to play a central role in policy making in many states. Referenda, or ballot propositions, have resulted in limits on taxation and limits on the number of terms of elected officials, and have dealt with bilingual education, campaign finances, and affirmative action, in states all over the country.

Shaun Bowler and Todd Donovan present a searching and original examination of how voters make decisions in direct referenda. The authors ask if voters have some information about the issue easily at their disposal and if they make choices that seem sensible given their interests and the information they have. Looking at the way voters respond to different kinds of questions, the authors suggest that while direct democracy has its failings, the flaws do not necessarily lie with citizens being "duped," nor with voters approving propositions they do not want or do not understand at some basic level.

As cynicism about government has increased many have sought to take policy questions out of the hands of elected officials and put the questions directly before the voters for decision. And yet many are skeptical about the ability of voters to make intelligent decisions about complex policy issues. This important book demonstrates that voters are capable of responding thoughtfully to referenda questions.

Boyer Patrick (1996) Direct Democracy in Canada: The History and Future of Referendums. Dundurn Group

Direct Democracy in Canada: The History and Future of Referendums surveys Canada's century-long record of plebiscites and referendums. J. Patrick Boyer analyzes the effects of the three national referendums and the development of a consensus. This companion volume to The People's Mandate studies some of the major provincial and municipal referendums, examines existing legal frameworks and speculates on the future of direct democracy in Canada.

Bruce Iain (2004) The Porto Alegre Alternative: Direct Democracy in Action. Pluto Press


Porto Alegre in Brazil is famous as the city that pioneered a revolutionary kind of local democracy. Started over a decade ago by the municipal administration of the Brazilian Workers' Party (PT), this process -- called the 'participatory budget' -- has steadily attracted attention from around the world, including the UN and even the financial press. It was the main reason Porto Alegre came to host the first three World Social Forums in 2001, 2002 and 2003. This is the first book in English that allows the creators of the participatory budget to explain the process for themselves -- what it is, how it is achieved, what benefits it brings. Written by key figures from Porto Alegre -- including the former mayor and the head of the City Planning Office -- it provides a unique insight into the revolutionary democratic changes that have proved such a success. It is also a practical how-to-do-it guide that will help local communities and policy-makers put these ideas into action.The Porto Alegre experience shows that a truly different kind of political democracy is possible -- it presents a real alternative to the current model of liberal representative democracy that has been eroded by unelected transnational institutions and multinational corporations. This book shows how a more positive and genuinely democratic future is within our reach.

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